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How to Write a Paper in IEEE Format: Citation and Referencing

How to Write a Paper in IEEE Format: Citation and Referencing

Students who study Computer Science should know what how to write a paper in IEEE format. No matter whether you study Information Technologies, Programming, or Web Communication, you will need to master this format. This article will teach you how to cite academic assignments using IEEE format and provide some overall writing recommendations and IEEE citation example. If you are the student or young professional involved in the field of Computer Science, we recommend reading our brief guide instead of studying the entire edition of the latest IEEE manual of style.

Table of Contents

What Is IEEE?

The Institute for Electrical & Electronics Engineers is a professional organization supporting various fields of engineering and IT. IEEE has established its own writing style manual to let the students and professionals in these areas organize their works. IEEE format is made up of 2 critical elements:

  • In-text citations (direct & indirect)
  • References (Works Cited in MLA format)

In-text citations are short quotations taken from primary or secondary sources. They are numbered in square brackets. In IEEE in text citation every number next to the citation identifies the complete citation listed in the Works Cited list or bibliography page. In APA citation format they call it References. The list of references appears in numerical order. The IEEE Editorial Style Manual is lengthy. That is why we recommend using our brief student’s guide.

How to Cite in IEEE?

Every reference has a corresponding IEEE citation within the main body of the essay or research paper. What is the difference between a direct and an indirect IEEE in text citation? A direct citation duplicates the original quote while an indirect one is the same idea paraphrased by the writer.

Each time a writer adds a citation, they should insert a number within square brackets making it possible to find the complete reference on the References page. The references page should be a separate piece of paper.

The full IEEE reference must include all the necessary information to help the reader find more details about the studied topic:

  • Author’s surname and initials
  • The full title of the work
  • Place of publication
  • Date of publication
  • Some smaller details like page number, issue, or volume (if available)
  • Before each reference, a corresponding number should show up.

Creating an IEEE Citation

IEEE in text citation should not necessarily contain a writer’s name, quoted pages, or date of publication. You may mention the source using numbers in a bracket like this: [x], where “x” is the number of the quote. It should match the complete citation in the IEEE bibliography.
Insert in-text quotations to support your arguments within the body of the essay, before any punctuation, with a space before the opening bracket.

Number each source in the order they show up during the process. After referring to a source and assigning a number to it, go on using that number each time you quote that source in the text.

Remember: if you cite numerous sources at the same time, the preferred approach is to provide every number separately, in its brackets with the help of a comma or dash between numbers. Example: [2], [4], [6] or [2] - [6].

Most experts recommend following the guidelines from the Murdoch University’s IEEE Style LibGuide.

Check the IEEE in text citation example from the guide:
“…the best conclusion for my study [12].”
“This hypothesis was initially offered in 1978 [2].”
“Muniz [3] has argued that…”
“The previous investigations of the topic [2], [7], [9], [13] have shown that…”
“Image [8] will illustrate it best of all.”

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Developing IEEE References Page

In IEEE format, a page with the full bibliography is called a References page / Reference List. It appears at the end of the project. The goal of the reference list is to offer complete citations for every source used to describe the in-text citation. Add the references in numerical sequence (one-by-one after the 1st citation), and do not forget to include the bracketed number at the beginning of every reference.

  • In accordance with the IEEE reference format, the title should be References. Place it in the center or align left at the top of the page.
  • Come up with a hanging indent for every reference with the numbers in brackets flush with the left side. It identifies the numerical order of the references.
  • List the writer’s name as the initial, surname like in the example: James Lee Monroe would be cited as J. L. Monroe.
  • The title of the cited source (book, newspaper, magazine, article, website) must appear in quotation marks.
  • The title of work must appear in italics.

IEEE updates its manual of writing style regularly. That is why it is essential to keep in touch with their official website and watch every change made to the vital format elements:

  • Punctuation
  • Capitalization
  • Abbreviations
  • Section Headings
  • Numbers, equations
  • Footnotes
  • How to cite and style references
  • Biographies

Three rules of the IEEE style remain stable despite the new editions:

  • Direct quotation. Place verbatim text from another source in quotation marks.

  • Add a reference to the original source. Rewrite or summarize; and come up with a citation when restating or making a summary of information from another source, including ideas, research, claims, or verdicts.

  • Data, findings, graphics, & tables. Cite the original work while referring to, adapting, or taking any data from another source.
    Explore the example of IEEE citation reference page to understand the way

IEEE Citation Example

Print References

Book: Single Author
[corresponding number] Author. Book title. Location: Publishing company, year, pp.

[1] W.-K. Chen.* Linear Networks and Systems*. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1993, pp. 123-135ю

Book: Two or More Authors
[corresponding number] Author, Author and Author. Book title. Location: Publishing company, year, pp.

[2] U. J. Gelinas, Jr., S. G. Sutton, and J. Fedorowicz. Business Processes and Information Technology. Cincinnati: South-Western/Thomson Learning, 2004, pp. 98-100.

Book: No Author
[corresponding number] Book title. Location: Publishing company, year, pp.

[3] The Oxford Dictionary of Computing, 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp.13-23.

Article in a Journal
[corresponding number] Author. “Article title”. Journal title, vol., pp, date.
[4] G. Pevere. “Infrared Nation.” The International Journal of Infrared Design, vol. 33, pp. 56-99, Jan. 1979.

Newspaper Article
[corresponding number] Author. “Article title”. Newspaper title, pp, date.

[5] N. Perpitch, "Green groups battle to overturn gas plan," The Australian, p. 2, Sept. 7, 2010.

Electronic References

[corresponding number] Author. (year, Month day). Book title. (edition). [Type of medium]. Vol. (issue). Available: http:// website URL [date accessed].

[6] S. Calmer. (1999, June 1). Engineering and Art. (2nd edition). [On-line]. 27(3). Available: http:// website URL [May 21, 2003].

IEEE Website Citation
[corresponding number] Website. “Title.” Internet: complete URL, date updated, [date accessed].

[7] "Social Networking Reaches Nearly One in Four Around the World." Available: http:// website URL, Jan. 25, 2014. [Accessed: June.23, 2014].

[corresponding number] Author Initial. Author Surname, "Title", Publication Title, Year Published. [Online]. Available: http:// website URL. [Accessed: date].

[8] R. Robertson. "Leadership at the Bottom of the Earth… Where No One Hears You Scream", Sir Walter Murdoch Lecture, 2010. [Podcast]. Available: http:// website URL. [Accessed Aug. 5, 2010].

If you can’t find some information, exclude it.

Why Citing is Important for Your Academic Performance

Some students and young writers do not get the point of citing. Citing sources properly is necessary for several reasons:

  • Formatting weighs something around 10-15% of the final grade per paper;
  • Plagiarism is unacceptable in the academic world, and incorrect referencing equals to plagiarism;
  • It is unethical to steal the words of other people as intellectual property is no less valuable than physical assets;
  • Full references help people to go on with their research, and this way humanity learns more about a specific problem.

Don’t count on the highest grade without having the sources properly cited.

IEEE has a special definition of the plagiarism. The organization believes it is the usage of another’s ideas, opinions, research findings, or words without acknowledging the original writer and source. Plagiarism is a severe breach of professional conduct. It involves serious ethical & legal outcomes in most situations. Imagine someone would use your words one day when you’ll become a famous writer or scientist. How would you feel?

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